Estate Planning Attorney inGramling, SC

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Securing Your Legacy in South
Carolina

Did you know that one in two U.S. citizens have yet to create a plan for their estate? Just about everyone knows they need to get their affairs in order, but most people procrastinate when it comes to estate planning. It's an uncomfortable subject to think about. After all, nobody wants to ponder their death and what happens to their assets when they pass. However, working with an estate planning lawyer in Gramling, SC, protects you, your loved ones, and your assets, both while you're alive and after you have died. There isn't a perfect time to plan your estate, but there is a right time and that time is now.

We understand that there is no "one-size-fits-all" solution to your estate planning needs. That's why, at CDH Law Firm, we make a concerted effort to speak with our clients personally so that we can create an estate plan that is as unique as they are. Our estate plans are comprehensive, cost-effective, and catered to you. That way, your family is provided if you are incapacitated or pass away.

At the end of the day, our goal is to make sure that every one of our clients leaves our office feeling less stressed and more informed. Peace of mind is valuable currency these days. Why worry about the future of your loved ones when you can use South Carolina law to ensure their stability?

Many of the clients in Gramling that walk through our doors have significant questions that require serious answers. They're filled with doubt, stress, and worry. They're worried about their children, their spouse, their relatives, or all the above. They ask questions like:

  • How much does estate planning cost?
  • What kind of results can I expect?
  • How long will this process take?

If these questions sound familiar, know that you are not alone. At CDH Law Firm, we have worked with hundreds of clients just like you. Sometimes, these clients are unsatisfied with their current estate planning attorney in Gramling. Other times, they have been served with confusing papers or documents that leave them feeling overwhelmed. In either case, clients come to our office knowing they need to manage what is often a sudden, foreign situation.

The good news? We sit down with all new clients for an hour at no extra cost. We do so to get a basic sense of their situation and help steer them in the right direction. That way, they can leave our office feeling a little wiser and a lot better about the future.

Estate Planning Law Gramling, SC
Service Areas

Our firm specializes in several areas of estate planning and family law, including:

  • Estate Planning
  • Last Will and Testament
  • Living Wills
  • Heath Care Power of Attorney
  • Living Wills
  • Irrevocable Trusts
  • Revocable Trusts
  • Retirement Trusts
  • Special Needs Trusts

The CHSA Law
Difference

At CHSA Law, LLC, estate planning is like second nature to us. Having worked hundreds upon hundreds of cases, we have the knowledge and experience to assist with all the estate planning needs that you or your family have.

As our client, you will always work directly with your attorney. We do not pass cases off to paralegals or junior associates. Because your concerns and questions don't end when our office closes, we encourage our clients to contact us at any time.

Because we limit the number of cases we accept, we have the time and resources to truly dedicate ourselves to each of our clients. Unlike some competitors, we care about the outcome of every case because we know that our clients' future depends on it.

 Estate Planning Attorney Gramling, SC The-Cobb-Dill-Hammett-Difference
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What Our Clients Say

What is Estate Planning in
Gramling, SC?

The word "estate" might make you think of a sprawling mansion in the French countryside. The truth is, you don't have to be rich to have an estate. In fact, most people already have an estate. An estate comprises the assets that a person owns like cars, bank accounts, real estate, businesses, and other possessions. Everyone's estate is different, but we all have one thing in common: none of us can take our estates with us when we die. When that does eventually happen, you will need legal instructions that state who gets what from your estate in plain terms.That, in a nutshell, is estate planning building a framework in advance that names the organizations or people that should receive your assets after you die. Planning your estate now helps make life much easier for your family down the line.

 Estate Planning Lawyer Gramling, SC
A good estate plan covers more than fiscal assets, however. A comprehensive
estate plan should include the following:
  • If you have children who are minors, instructions as to who will be their guardian when you die.
  • Long-term care insurance if you suffer from an extended injury or illness.
  • Instructions that dictate what happens to you and your financial affairs if you become incapacitated before death.
  • Instructions on the transfer of your business after retirement, incapacity, disability, or death.
  • Instructions on how to provide for loved ones who might need help managing money or who need protection from creditors.
  • Probate and tax avoidance that help minimize court fees, taxes, and legal fees.
  • Planning Medicaid payments.
  • Instructions that help complete or update beneficiary designations.
  • Assist family members who have special needs without disqualifying them from government benefits.

Contrary to popular belief, estate planning isn't just for adults who are approaching retirement age. Estate planning is for everyone. After all, we're all getting older, and none of us know exactly when it will be our time to go.

The Basics of Estate Planning
in Gramling, SC

Although estate planning can be complicated, a well-rounded plan makes a huge difference in what is left to your beneficiaries. Before you start planning your estate, it's important to know a few common topics that may arise as you detail your needs.

1.

Working with a Tax Advisor and Estate Planning
Attorney in Gramling, SC

Working with a veteran estate planning lawyer is a no-brainer, but you should consider working with a tax advisor too. Your attorney's role is to help guide you through the creation of your estate planning documents. Common documents include your will, health care directives, and power of attorney. Your tax advisor will help guide you through tax issues associated with your estate planning needs.

In this relationship, you make the decisions while your attorney and tax advisor help you understand and think through the options you're considering. As a team, they will help you state your wishes clearly while minimizing mistakes and adjusting your plans as they change. Because significant savings can result from thorough, informed planning, you should seriously consider working with a tax advisor in addition to your estate planning attorney.

 Law Firm Gramling, SC
2.

Maximizing
Your Estate

If there were one overriding theme of estate planning, it would be maximizing what you plan to leave behind. Thinking through how each of your assets will be distributed is crucial to your estate. Your decisions may change depending on the type of asset, its size, how old you are, and several other factors. With an attorney on your side, you will gain a thorough understanding of what actions you should take to care for your family while minimizing expenses like taxes and court fees.

Estate Planning Law Gramling, SC
3.

Inheritance, Estate,
and Gift Taxes

One of the biggest parts of maximizing what you're leaving behind is to minimize taxes. Federal taxes on estates and gifts are incredibly high. Both forms of taxes usually have exemption limits, which means you can give up to a specific amount without being taxed. Your lawyer can achieve that by using the gift tax exemption to move assets while you are still alive. This strategy maximizes how much your beneficiaries will receive.

Inheritance taxes are often based on the value of your estate and paid prior to asset distribution to your beneficiaries.

 Estate Planning Attorney Gramling, SC

Choosing the
Executor of Your Will

The executor of your estate plays a key role in your affairs. Their responsibilities include carrying out the terms of your will and seeing the estate settlement process through until the end. Obviously, such a role demands a qualified person. Choosing your executor isn't an easy decision. The person you select should be great at managing money, be savvy financially, and show an ability to be patient. That's because the executor is tasked with:

  • Collecting Your Assets
  • Paying Outstanding Bills
  • Submitting Tax Returns
  • Petitioning the Court for Documents
  • Distributing Assets to Your Beneficiaries
 Estate Planning Lawyer Gramling, SC

If the person that you choose as executor is inexperienced with the estate settlement process, it is recommended that they lean on an estate planning attorney in Gramling, SC for guidance. It should be noted that you may appoint more than a single executor to your estate. This is common when two individuals have complementary personalities or skill sets.

The Benefits of Estate Planning
in Gramling, SC

One of the biggest benefits of planning your estate is the peace of mind it brings to you and your family. With the help of our expert estate planning attorneys, you have the power to protect your assets, privacy, and children's welfare. You can also potentially save money on taxes or even avoid probate. By having your wishes legally documented before death or incapacity, you can minimize any impact on your beneficiaries and take control of your legacy. Without a comprehensive estate plan, you're leaving the future of your loved ones in the hands of the South Carolina court system.

With an estate plan in place, you can plan for incapacity by using a power of attorney or advanced medical directives. Doing so relieves your loved ones of the burden of asking the court for the authority to fulfill your wishes.

At CDH Law Firm, we are committed to helping you prepare for both the expected and unexpected through years of experience and a fierce dedication to our clients. From establishing trusts to designing business succession plans, we are here to fight for you.

At CDH we offer a "Will Package" that includes 4 necessary documents.

If a husband and wife each purchase reciprocating will packages we give a discount. Reciprocating just means the husband names the wife and the wife names the husband. Those four documents are:

  • Last will and testament
  • Healthcare power of attorney
  • Durable power of attorney
  • living will

Common Documents Included
in Your Estate Plan

As mentioned above, everyone's estate planning needs will be different. However, most plans include one or more of the following documents:

1.

Will

Your will is an essential piece of documentation and is often considered the cornerstone of a proper estate plan. Generally speaking, your will is a document that dictates the distribution of your assets after your death. Having an iron-clad will is one of the best ways to make sure that your wishes are communicated clearly. As is the case with most estate planning, it is highly recommended that you work with an estate planning attorney in Gramling, SC, to create and update your will.

The contents of a will typically include:

  • Designation of the executor, who is responsible for adhering to the provisions of your will.
  • Designation of beneficiaries the people who will be inheriting your assets
  • Instructions that dictate how and when your beneficiaries will receive assets.
  • Instructions that assign guardianship for any minor children.

Without a will in place, the State of South Carolina will decide how to distribute assets to your beneficiaries. Allowing the state to distribute your assets is often an unfavorable route to take, since the settlement process may not include what you had in mind for your survivors. Having a will drafted that reflects your wishes will prevent such a situation from happening.

 Law Firm Gramling, SC
2.

Living Will

Despite its name, a living will does not instruct your survivors on what assets go where. Also called an advanced directive, your living will allows you to state your end-of-life medical wishes if you have become unable to communicate. This important document provides guidance to family members and doctors and solidifies certain issues like whether you should be resuscitated after an accident.

For example, it's common to direct that palliative care (care to decrease pain and suffering) always be administered if needed. Conversely, you may state that certain measures are not allowed, like CPR.

Estate Planning Law Gramling, SC
3.

Trusts

Traditionally, a trust is used to minimize estate taxes and maximize other benefits as part of a well-rounded estate plan. This fiduciary agreement lets a trustee hold your assets on behalf of your beneficiaries. There are many ways to arrange a trust to specify when and how your assets are distributed.

With a trust in place, your beneficiaries can avoid going to probate. That means they may be able to gain access to your assets quicker than when they are transferred with a standard will. Assets placed in a trust can pass outside of probate, which will save you and your family time, money, and stress.

There are two distinct trust categories that you should be aware of: revocable and irrevocable.

 Estate Planning Attorney Gramling, SC

Revocable Trust:

Also called a living trust, a revocable trust helps assets circumvent probate. With this trust, you can control your assets while you are still alive. These trusts are flexible and may be dissolved at any point in time. This type of trust becomes irrevocable upon your death. Revocable trusts can help you avoid the pitfalls of probate but be aware that they are usually still taxable.

Irrevocable Trust:

This kind of trust transfers assets out of your estate so that they are not taxed and do not have to go through probate. However, once an irrevocable trust has been executed, it may not be altered. That means that once you establish this kind of trust, you lose control of its assets and cannot dissolve the trust. If your primary goal is to avoid taxes on your estate, setting up an irrevocable could be a wise choice.

When drafted with the help of an estate planning lawyer in Gramling, SC, your trust can also:

Protect Your Legacy:

When constructed properly, a trust can protect your estate from your heirs' creditors. This can be a huge relief for beneficiaries who might need to brush up on money management skills.

Privacy and Probate:

Probate records are made available for public consumption. With a trust, you may have the choice of having your assets pass outside of probate court so that they remain private. In the process, you may also save money that you would lose to taxes and court fees.

Control Wealth:

Because you can specify the exact terms of a trust, you have more control over who receives your assets and when they receive them. As an example, you can set up a revocable trust so that your assets are attainable while you're alive. When you pass, remaining assets are distributed, even in complex situations involving children from multiple marriages.

The Top Estate Planning Law Firm in the Lowcountry

If you know that you need to provide for your family and loved ones after your death, it's time to develop your estate plan. With CDH Law Firm by your side, planning your estate doesn't have to be difficult. However, it does need to be accurate and executed exactly to your wishes something that we have been helping clients achieve for years. Don't leave your legacy up to chance contact our office today and secure your future generations.

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Latest News in Gramling, SC

South Carolina Football’s GOAT Series: Top-12 greatest quarterbacks of all-time

South Carolina football will never be mistaken for one of the nation’s top producers of quarterback talent. However, there have still been a number of impressive signal callers who have donned the block C on their helmets. Scramblers, pocket passers, and guys who could do both have taken snaps under center for the Gamecocks. In 2023, Spencer Rattler hopes to build off the end of his 2022 season and add his name to this list.Honorable MentionsBobby Fuller: Had he spent more time i...

South Carolina football will never be mistaken for one of the nation’s top producers of quarterback talent. However, there have still been a number of impressive signal callers who have donned the block C on their helmets. Scramblers, pocket passers, and guys who could do both have taken snaps under center for the Gamecocks. In 2023, Spencer Rattler hopes to build off the end of his 2022 season and add his name to this list.

Honorable Mentions

Bobby Fuller: Had he spent more time in Columbia, Bobby Fuller (1990-1991) certainly would be higher on this list. Fuller transferred to South Carolina from Appalachian State when Sparky Woods became the head coach. On an offense loaded with talent, he threw for almost 5000 yards but led two unremarkable seasons in which the Gamecocks only won 7 FBS games despite only playing 5 ranked opponents.

Garry Harper: Garry Harper (1978-1980) had one job in garnet and black: hand the ball to King George. He did that job well and rode on George Rogers’ back to 20 wins, the same as Gamecock greats Stephen Garcia and Steve Taneyhill. Harper did just enough to give South Carolina a chance to win most weeks, and he had no problem deferring to Rogers and Johnnie Wright.

Dan Reeves: One of the best athletes to play quarterback for the Gamecocks, Dan Reeves (1962-1964) was one of the few bright spots on some bad Carolina teams. Among the all-time quarterback rushers at South Carolina, Reeves went on to a long NFL career as a running back and slot receiver before becoming a great NFL head coach.

Ron Bass: Ron Bass (1973-1977) was a popular quarterback despite following the great Jeff Grantz. Bass was one of the best running quarterbacks in school history and was part of a fun backfield with Clarence Williams and Kevin Long. Immortalized as “Sunshine” in the movie Remember the Titans, Bass had his best performance against rival North Carolina when, filling in for an injured Grantz, he rushed for over 200 yards and two touchdowns in the win.

Allen Mitchell: The starter during most of the “Black Magic” season of 1984, Mitchell split time at quarterback much of his career. He struggled statistically and wasn’t as talented as many other South Carolina quarterbacks. However, Mitchell was a good leader who won way more games than his natural abilities would indicate possible. His toughness was well-respected during his playing career.

Syvelle Newton: Syvelle Newton (2003-2006) was a football player. One of the best athletes to play for the Gamecocks regardless of position, Newton bounced around from position to position but spent two seasons as the leader under center for Lou Holtz and Steve Spurrier. Newton is one of only four players in the history of college football to amass over 600 yards passing, 600 yards rushing, and 600 yards receiving. He also spent time on defense and was a threat offensively, no matter where he was lined up at the snap.

Johnny Gramling: Playing in an era when freshmen were not allowed on the team, Johnny Gramling (1951-1953) started for three seasons and never had a losing season despite the Gamecocks having three losing seasons in a row prior to Gramling getting the job. He was a two-time all-conference player and led South Carolina to two shutout victories over rival Clemson, something that hasn’t happened since Gramling graduated.

South Carolina Football’s No. 12 Greatest Quarterback of All-Time: Mike Hold

Mike Hold (1984-1985) only spent one year as the starter in garnet and black, but it is not the season with which he is most often associated. As a senior, Hold had a decent 1985 season that saw the Gamecocks take a step back from the “Black Magic” of 1984. The previous year, operating primarily as Allen Mitchell’s backup, Hold played in every game and orchestrated two come-from-behind victories.

Also the reserve punter, Hold finished his career with just under 3000 passing yards and over 500 yards on the ground. Arguably his most iconic moment came on the last play of Carolina’s win over Clemson in 1984. In the victory formation, Hold took the snap, killed some clock, and took an unnecessary hit from William “The Refrigerator” Perry. As the whistle blew, Hold took a step back and dropped the ball at Perry’s feet, and allegedly said, “Hold that, Tiger!”

Campobello-Gramling School named South Carolina’s Best Reading School

For the second consecutive year, the top three finalists for the South Carolina International Reading Association’s Exemplary Reading Schools Award were schools from Spartanburg School District One.Campobello-Gramling School was named the SCIRA Exemplary Reading School for 2013. Holly Springs Motlow School was named an honor/ first runner-up school.District One Schools is extraordinarily proud of this accomplishment and it serves to validate that our schools are at the forefront of the best in literacy instruction across ...

For the second consecutive year, the top three finalists for the South Carolina International Reading Association’s Exemplary Reading Schools Award were schools from Spartanburg School District One.

Campobello-Gramling School was named the SCIRA Exemplary Reading School for 2013. Holly Springs Motlow School was named an honor/ first runner-up school.

District One Schools is extraordinarily proud of this accomplishment and it serves to validate that our schools are at the forefront of the best in literacy instruction across the state. When making the announcement of the winning school, the Chairman of the Awards Committee stated that all three schools from District One could have been the winner but the International Reading Association recognizes only one school from each state.

Each school was required to submit an extensive paper application that describes the literacy and reading program and covers these areas: the reading program is consistent with sound theory, research and practice; the reading program facilitates student learning; students have access to a wide variety of reading materials; students demonstrate success in reading; comprehension strategies are taught and applied across the curriculum; listening, speaking, viewing and writing are integrated into and support the reading program; administrators and teachers provide leadership and vision for the building and/or district reading program; the school and/or district offer support services to the program; literacy activities occur outside of school; and the community, including parents, is involved in the reading program.

Spartanburg School District One had several teams of teachers present at the conference to present workshops on our strategies for successful reading schools. Fourteen presentations were given from teachers from Spartanburg District One, including the three Exemplary Reading finalist schools.

Campobello Gramling serves about 765 students in K4-eighth grade.

John Hodge, principal at Campobello Gramling School, said he is extremely proud of the school’s accomplishments.

“Our students, our teachers, and our community worked extremely hard to get to the place where we could receive this award and we will continue to work hard. I am honored to be the principal of one of the three schools in District One who were finalists — what an accomplishment.”

Dr. Ron Garner, Superintendent of District One Schools, Spartanburg, said Campobello Gramling School is to be commended for receiving this honor.

“This recognition only validates what occurs every day in the school and is reflected in the success of the students at Campobello Gramling,” he said. “This is just another example of our district mission to provide a ‘quality, student-centered education. We are just as proud of our other schools that were honored by SCIRA and in our minds, they are all winners for the children we serve.”

– article submitted by Paula Brooks

Top Spartanburg-area girls basketball players to watch going into the 2022-23 season

With the fall sports season winding down, it's time to look forward to the basketball season. Here's a look at some of the top girls basketball players from the Spartanburg area to watch in the 2022-23 season.Note: Stats were submitted by coaches or found on MaxPreps or Hudl. Players are listed in alphabetical order.SPARTANBURG PLAYERS TO WATCH:...

With the fall sports season winding down, it's time to look forward to the basketball season. Here's a look at some of the top girls basketball players from the Spartanburg area to watch in the 2022-23 season.

Note: Stats were submitted by coaches or found on MaxPreps or Hudl. Players are listed in alphabetical order.

SPARTANBURG PLAYERS TO WATCH:Top Spartanburg-area boys basketball players to watch going into the 2022-23 season

FOOTBALL PREDICTIONS:Predicting winners of every South Carolina high school football playoff game

GREENVILLE PLAYERS TO WATCH:Top Greenville County boys basketball players to watch going into the 2022-23 season

KaDerrah Beason, Forward

High Point, Sr.

Beason led High Point in scoring with 17.7 points a game, while adding 6.4 rebounds and a berth to the Upper State championship game. With guard Adiyah Owens graduating, Beason will most likely continue to carry the scoring load for the Grizzlies and could add a layer to her game as a playmaker for new coach Jamaal Brown.

Savannah Brown, Center

Landrum, Jr.

Brown led Landrum with 11 points, 4.5 rebounds, and two assists per game and was the driving force behind a young Cardinals team making a run to the AA Upper State championship game. Brown's handle, size and scoring ability from anywhere on the court is what makes her a special player.

Sadie Burnette, Guard

Woodruff, So.

As a freshman, Burnette led the wolverines in scoring averaging 11.8 points a game, while adding 4.6 rebounds and 3.2 steals. With Burnette leading the way, Woodruff also brings back four of its top five scorers and should lean on her scoring but will also force defenses to stay honest when playing the Wolverines.

Te'Ericka Dowling, Guard

Byrnes, So.

The all-region team selection returns to Byrnes for her Sophomore season after averaging 12.3 points, 5.7 rebound, 2.2 assists and 2.3 steals a game. Dowling should have more opportunity to be the primary offensive weapon for Byrnes as scoring leader Savannah Porterfield has graduated.

Dasia Ferguson, Forward

Dorman, Sr.

Ferguson is the top returning scorer and rebounder from a great 2020-21 Dorman team, averaging 11.4 points, 7.5 rebound and 3.2 steals for the Cavaliers. Ferguson is a defensive stopper, constantly causing turnovers and crashing the defensive boards to end possessions, but this season with both of Dorman's leading scorers graduating, she'll need to increase her production on the offensive end for new coach Ashlen Dewart Dorn.

Annabella Foster, Forward

Blacksburg, Jr.

Foster was a force for Blacksburg in the middle of its offensive and defensive structures as a sophomore last year, averaging 7.4 points, 10.2 rebound and 3.3 steals. With scoring leader Tyty Tate graduating, there is a clear void on the offensive end for the Wildcats that Foster has the ability to fill.

Clara Gramling, Forward

Chapman, Sr.

Gramling averaged 15.8 points, 3.1 rebounds and 2.3 steals last season for a Chapman team that returns most of its roster. Expect Gramling to help lead an improved Panthers team with her scoring and experience.

Leah Page, Forward

Gaffney, Sr.

Page is a versatile big guard/forward that can put the ball in the basket and find her teammates, she averaged 13.5 points, 7.5 rebounds and 4.2 assists for a Gaffney team that finished 2nd in the region, and should be favored to win the region this season.

Shyrique Parker

Gaffney, Jr.

Along with Page, Parker was another big reason for Gaffney's success last season, averaging 16 points, 7.9 rebounds and 3.2 steals -- leading the team in scoring and rebounding.

Olivia Martin, Center

High Point, Sr.

Martin returns to High Point as one of the top interior players in the area, the senior averaged a double-double last season, 11.8 points and 10.3 rebounds a game. The front-court combo of Beason and Martin will be one the deadliest in the area and in all of the 1-A classification.

Krislyn Wilder, Guard

Chapman, So.

Wilder lead Chapman as a freshman in scoring, assists and steals with 16.6 points, 4.8 assists, and 2.4 steals a game while adding 6.8 rebounds.

Josie Workman, Forward

Byrnes, Sr.

The North Greenville commit and all-region selection, Workman averaged 12.3 points, 7 rebounds, 2 blocks and 1.9 steals last season for Byrnes. Along with Dowling, Workman should be one of the go-to scorers and leaders for the Rebels team this season.

Half a degree stole the climate spotlight in 2018

The grim reality of climate change grabbed center stage in 2018.This is the year we learned that the 2015 Paris Agreement on global warming won’t be enough to forestall significant impacts of climate change. And a new field of research explicitly attributed some extreme weather events to human-caused climate change. This one-two punch made it clear that climate change isn’t just something to worry about in the coming decades. It’s already here.This looming problem was apparent three years ago when nearly all o...

The grim reality of climate change grabbed center stage in 2018.

This is the year we learned that the 2015 Paris Agreement on global warming won’t be enough to forestall significant impacts of climate change. And a new field of research explicitly attributed some extreme weather events to human-caused climate change. This one-two punch made it clear that climate change isn’t just something to worry about in the coming decades. It’s already here.

This looming problem was apparent three years ago when nearly all of the world’s nations agreed to cut greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming to no more than 2 degrees Celsius over preindustrial times by 2100 (SN: 1/9/16, p. 6). That pact was hard-won, but even then, some scientists sounded a note of caution: That target wouldn’t be stringent enough to prevent major changes.

So the United Nations took an unprecedented step. It commissioned the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to examine how the world might fare if global warming were limited to 1.5 degrees instead of 2 degrees. That report, released in October, confirmed that half a degree can indeed make a world of difference (SN: 10/27/18, p. 7). A half degree less warming means less sea level rise, fewer species lost due to vanished habitats and fewer life-threatening heat, drought and precipitation extremes (SN: 6/9/18, p. 6).

There’s little time to reverse course. The IPCC report notes that the planet’s average temperature has already increased by nearly 1 degree since preindustrial times, and that rise is contributing to extinctions, lower crop yields and more frequent wildfires. At the end of 2017, three attribution studies for the first time determined that certain extreme events, including an extended marine heat wave in the Pacific Ocean known as “the Blob,” would not have happened without human-induced climate change (SN: 1/20/18, p. 6).

This year, researchers reported that the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season got a boost from warm waters in the tropical Atlantic, fueled by climate change (SN Online: 9/28/18). And a team of scientists determined that climate change was the engine behind September’s intense rainfall from Hurricane Florence in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States (SN Online: 9/13/18).

A report released November 23 by hundreds of U.S. climate scientists from 13 federal agencies put a price tag on many of the effects for the United States (SN Online: 11/28/18). The report predicts the country’s economy will shrink by as much as 10 percent by 2100 if global warming continues on its current trajectory.

Climate simulations suggest that Earth will reach the 1.5 degree threshold within a decade. And even if countries were to agree to limit warming to that level, the planet would almost certainly surpass it before the warming reversed, due to the realities of how quickly emissions can be reduced. Passing that target will probably lead to some irreversible changes, such as melted glaciers and species losses. To overshoot the mark by only a small amount, or not at all, requires reducing emissions by about 45 percent relative to 2010 levels by the year 2030. The planet would then be able to reach net zero, when the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere is balanced by the amount removed, by around 2050, the IPCC report notes.

To bring warming back down below the 1.5 degree target by the end of the century, the world will need negative emissions technologies to remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Such technologies that limit or even reverse warming are less pie-in-the-sky than they sound, says Stephen Pacala, an ecologist at Princeton University. “Although there is a lot of doom and gloom available on the progress of humanity, there isn’t on the technological side.” Pacala chaired a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine committee that released a report in October that analyzed the viability of current and emerging negative emissions technologies as well as encouraged large-scale investments in them.

Some simple negative emissions practices already in use include planting forests to soak up atmospheric carbon, or growing plants for biofuels and then storing underground the CO2 from the burning of those fuels. But current efforts have drawbacks. Planting sufficient forests or biofuel crops “would have a large land footprint,” says economist and IPCC coauthor Sabine Fuss of the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change in Berlin. And that could impact future food availability and biodiversity.

Other negative emissions technologies in development could become game changers, Pacala says. Direct air capture, in which CO2 is removed directly from the atmosphere and converted into synthetic fuel, is a proven technology. But so far, the high cost of direct air capture remains a barrier to commercial-scale development. The National Academies report says that nations should subsidize start-ups to drive competition in this area — after all, that’s what worked for wind and solar power, Pacala notes. Other proposed negative emissions technologies, such as converting atmospheric CO2 into a stable mineral form (SN: 9/15/18, p. 9), show some promise but require large-scale financial investment in their basic science to make them viable, the report states.

Reducing demand for resource-intensive products will also be important to reach the 1.5 degree target, Fuss says. Cities need to move away from fossil fuels, and individuals can do their part by, for example, traveling less (SN: 6/9/18, p. 5), eating less meat (SN: 7/7/18, p. 10) and installing more energy-efficient appliances. Data show that, given the right incentives, people are willing to make such lifestyle changes, says IPCC report coauthor Linda Steg, an environmental psychologist at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. And those incentives aren’t necessarily financial or based on self-interest, she adds. “People are also motivated by protecting the interests of others, or by the quality of the environment.”

Holding warming to 1.5 degrees “is not impossible,” says Natalie Mahowald, a climate scientist at Cornell University and an IPCC report coauthor. But “it really requires ambitious efforts, and the sooner the better. We have to start cutting emissions now.”

Political will to act varies country by country, but scientists have done what they can to convey the urgency and the scope of the climate change problem, says IPCC report coauthor Heleen de Coninck, an environmental scientist at Radboud University in Nijmegen, Netherlands. Nations “have it in their hands, and they know what they are working with,” de Coninck says. “Now it’s up to them.”

9/11 'Never Forget' Museum open this weekend at Patriot's Point

MOUNT PLEASANT, S.C. (WCIV) — A little bit of history rolled into town Friday.The 9/11 'Never Forget' Mobile Museum is stationed in Mount Pleasant this weekend. Its purpose - to make sure no one forgets the thousands of lives lost nearly 15 years ago."When everything was attacked I was in high school," Mount Pleasant firefighter Mike Olson said. "Specifically, in band class."Olson was one of several local firefighters to help set up the mobile museum on the grounds of Patriot's Point.&quo...

MOUNT PLEASANT, S.C. (WCIV) — A little bit of history rolled into town Friday.

The 9/11 'Never Forget' Mobile Museum is stationed in Mount Pleasant this weekend. Its purpose - to make sure no one forgets the thousands of lives lost nearly 15 years ago.

"When everything was attacked I was in high school," Mount Pleasant firefighter Mike Olson said. "Specifically, in band class."

Olson was one of several local firefighters to help set up the mobile museum on the grounds of Patriot's Point.

"Our mission every day at Patriot's Point - it fits in perfect here," Public Information Officer Chris Hauff of Patriot's Point said. "It's a central location for people to come and go. It's a free exhibit and it's no cost to anybody except for a parking fee."

First responders got a first look at the museum Friday night before it officially opens to the public Saturday at 10 a.m.

"Just extreme pride - extreme emotion about this," Olson said. "This is an emotional day that happened to our country so I'm just extremely, just proud to be a part of this."

"At the end of the day the fire department as a whole is a brotherhood, a family," said Mount Pleasant Fire Captain Edward Gramling.

Gramling served in the Fairfax County fire department September 11th, 2001. He may not have been a part of the rescue efforts at the Pentagon or World Trade Center, but understands the impact.

"If someone in another part of the nation, as a firefighter, hurts, it's a collective hurt among the ranks," he said.

The brotherhood stood together Friday to educate.

"I think it's so important to remember what happened to us as a country, as a city, because we did forget what happened to us in the '93 bombing," retired New York City Fire Commander Jack Oehm said.

"I was a battalion chief at the time," he said. "I lost three out of my nine units - never came back home. So twenty of my men never came back home."

Now, Oehm gives a heartfelt tour through the mobile museum every chance he gets.

"Feeling mad and angry and upset about what happened to us as a country."

He said it's how he keeps more than three thousand memories alive for the next generation of high school kids, who could one day also serve this country.

"I'll never forget it," Olson said. "Didn't really understand the impact of it until I got a little older and now being a firefighter, I now understand how important that event was and the pride I feel just being a part of this today."

The museum is open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday and Sunday. It is free to enter. Donations will go to the Stephen Siller Tunnel to Towers Foundation to help build injured Veterans 'smart homes' once then return from combat.

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